hyponatremia symptoms

Hyponatremia. Hyponatremia develops when the sodium drops below 135 mEq/L (x). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 19th Ed.

Decreased consciousness, hallucinations or coma, Comprehensive metabolic panel (includes blood sodium, normal range is 135 to 145 mEq/L, or 135 to 145 mmol/L). If you have a medical condition that increases your risk of hyponatremia or you take diuretic medications, be aware of the signs and symptoms of low blood sodium. If the syndrome is chronic, frusemide or salt tablets may be used for long term treatment. [38], Hyponatremia is the most commonly seen water–electrolyte imbalance. If your sodium levels are in the mild or moderate range, your doctor may suggest that you restrict your water intake so that your body can begin to rebalance the fluid levels.
Low sodium (hypotonic) IV fluids should be avoided, as these worsen the condition. Additionally, certain conditions, diseases, and medications can affect the rate at which sodium is excreted from the body. If a person has a mild case of hyponatremia, there may not be any significant signs or symptoms associated with it, or the symptoms may initially be subtle. It can also help strengthen the muscles, reduce fatigue and produce glucose for energy. [10] They may also be used in people with chronic hyponatremia due to SIADH that is insufficiently responsive to fluid restriction and/or sodium tablets. Consider drinking sports beverages during demanding activities. Sources of daily water gain and loss under normal conditions. Hyponatremia is an important and common clinical problem. Chemotherapy and associated nausea and vomiting. Normal volume hyponatremia exists when there is hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, or after drinking too much beer or water. Moderate and/or symptomatic hyponatremia is treated by raising the serum sodium level by 0.5 to 1 mmol per liter per hour for a total of 8 mmol per liter during the first day with the use of furosemide and replacing sodium and potassium losses with 0.9% saline. Ⓒ 2020 About, Inc. (Dotdash) — All rights reserved, Verywell Health uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Overhydration with fluids containing less sodium than normal blood (hypotonic fluids). Treatment depends on patient symptoms and the underlying cause of the hyponatremia.

Symptoms of low blood sodium can vary from person to person. enable_page_level_ads: true

Ask your doctor about replacing water with sports beverages that contain electrolytes when participating in endurance events such as marathons, triathlons and other demanding activities. Figure 4.
These medications can interfere with normal hormonal kidney processes that maintain healthy sodium concentrations (x).

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